Integrated Pest Management for Macadamia Nut Production in Hawaii


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More Information on Macadamia Nut Production

Macadamia Nut IPM Program Authors:

E. Campbell (USDA Wildlife), J. DeFrank (UH Horticulture: Weed Science), C. Evensen (UH Agronomy: Water Quality), H. Hirae (UH Extension), V. Jones (UH Entomology), M. Kawate (UH Environmental Biochemistry), M. Nagao (UH Horticulture), W. Nishijima (UH Plant Pathology), R. Nishimoto (UH Horticulture: Weed Science), and the HMNA Board of Directors.

Project Goal: IPM implementation on 75% of Hawaii’s active crop lands.


Our highest priority is implementation to meet President Clinton’s goal for IPM implementation on 75 percent of crop acres. Four crops were selected for the Hawaii 1998-2001 performance plan.  The crops are pineapple, macadamia, banana, and sugarcane.  Program implementation for all of the crops will utilize the certification model used by extension programs in northeastern states.  University and industry experts will assemble IPM programs for each crop.  Each of the practices in the program will be given application points.  Certification will be given if the grower has met 80% of total possible points.

Targeted acres under a minimum set of IPM practices 15,000 acres
Total acreage in-crop (1997) 20,200 acres

In 1997, total statewide acreage devoted to macadamia nut production was estimated at 20,200 acres, of which 19,200 acres, or 95 percent were harvested. Total wet-in-shell production reached a record high 58 million pounds net, in 1997, which was valued at 43.5 million dollars. Grower identified priorities include better management strategies for pests and diseases that reduce marketable yields.

Top on the list of industry concerns, however, is control of macadamia quick decline (MQD).  Although already the subject of extensive research, the interaction of organisms and environmental factors contributing to the disease syndrome have not been fully elucidated.  Development of effective cultural and chemical control methods depends on the completion of these studies.  Some cultivars are more resistant than others.

There are several other diseases of significance in macadamia culture.  In particular, industry recognized Phytophthora raceme blight and Kretzschmaria root rot as problematic and in need of improved control strategies.  Raceme blight may lower yields by affecting fruit set.  Root rot also affects yields and results in a slow decline that eventually kills the affected tree.  Chemical controls have not been identified that are effective against either disease.

Industry-identified insect problems include tropical nut borer, litchi fruit moth, Koa seedworm, and southern green stink bug.  A significant research base exists for these pests.  Management tactics have been devised and are being utilized by many growers. Insecticide use by the industry is very low.  Pesticide use by the macadamia nut industry is relatively low due to their commitment and utilization of cultural practices to manage insect and disease pathogens. Overall, bio-control is the preferred and most utilized pest management tool. Comprehensive research is ongoing to improve pest management alternatives.

 Rats consume nuts and eat into profits.  The United States Department of Agriculture Denver Wildlife Research Center is providing the research base for rat control.

UPDATE

fully elucidated.  Development of effective cultural and chemical control methods depends on the completion of these studies.  Some cultivars are more resistant than others.

There are several other diseases of significance in macadamia culture.  In particular, industry recognized Phytophthora raceme blight and Kretzschmaria root rot as problematic and in need of improved control strategies.  Raceme blight may lower yields by affecting fruit set.  Root rot also affects yields and results in a slow decline that eventually kills the affected tree.  Chemical controls have not been identified that are effective against either disease.

Industry-identified insect problems include tropical nut borer, litchi fruit moth, Koa seedworm, and southern green stink bug.  A significant research base exists for these pests.  Management tactics have been devised and are being utilized by many growers. Insecticide use by the industry is very low.  Pesticide use by the macadamia nut industry is relatively low due to their commitment and utilization of cultural practices to manage insect and disease pathogens. Overall, bio-control is the preferred and most utilized pest management tool. Comprehensive research is ongoing to improve pest management alternatives.

 Rats consume nuts and eat into profits.  The United States Department of Agriculture Denver Wildlife Research Center is providing the research base for rat control.

UPDATE

The Macadamia Nut Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Protocol was modeled after the National IPM Protocol for Potatoes. The Macadamia Nut IPM Protocol is supported by guidelines which were defined by a multi-disciplinary team of faculty from the University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources (UH-CTAHR) and the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Association (HMNA). This program was specifically designed to establish the best management approach for the production of macadamia nuts in the State of Hawaii. Guidelines and point values are used to determine the level of IPM being utilized and are subject to change with new IPM developments. Adoption of the IPM program for macadamia nuts will begin in August 1999.


Industry Crop Profile (restricted)
OPTIONAL: IPM Program: Monitoring Sheets