Crop Knowledge Master Fungi

Fusarium solani

fruit and seedling rot of papaya (Plant Disease Pathogen)
Hosts Distribution Symptoms Biology Epidemiology Management Reference


Wayne Nishijima, Extension Plant Pathologist

Department of Plant Pathology


University of Hawaii at Hilo


Fusarium solani is known to cause a variety of diseases on many different hosts. This summary focuses on the affects this pathogen has on papaya.


Several Fusarium spp. have been reported to cause papaya fruit rot but Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. is the most common and widespread species of Fusarium causing papaya fruit rot in Hawaii, India and the Philippines.


Lesions are small, up to 15 mm, depressed and usually covered by a combination of white mycelia and conidial masses. They can occur on the fruit surface as well as the stem-end.


In Mexico F. solani has been reported to cause a seedling collar rot. It is a weak pathogen requiring some kind of predisposing factor that stresses or injures the fruit before it becomes established. It is often seen as a secondary invader on lesions caused by other fungi such as anthracnose. Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld. and F. equiseti (Corda) Sacc. have been reported from India as causing fruit rots. In Hawaii, Fusarium fruit rot is most common when rainy conditions prevail and all postharvest diseases are high.

The fungus is also known to cause a rot of young (3-5 cm long) papaya fruits especially during wet weather. The fungus enters the seed cavity through the blossom end where it quickly spreads within the fruit and causes the fruit to abort and fall from the tree.



Preventive field sprays and hot water dips are effective in controlling Fusarium fruit rot.


Hunter, J.E., and Buddenhagen I.W. 1972. Incidence, epidemiology and control of fruit diseases of papaya in Hawaii. Trop Agric. (Trinidad) 49:61-71.

Quimio, T.H. 1976. Pathogenicity and cultural characteristics of Fusarium solani from papaya. Kalikasan Philippine J. of Biol. 5:241-250.

Saldana, M.I., Marquez, M., and Ruiz, P. 1985. Identificacion de enfermedades fungosas del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.) en el estado de Tabasco. Revista Americana de Fitopatologia, 3:14-17.

Saxena, R.M., and Sharma, K.D. 1981. Deterioration of papaya fruits by fungi. Agricultural Science Digest--India. 1:140-142.






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