Pest Management Guidelines
|Introduction to Managing Fruit Flies in Hawai'i|
By: Laurel Dekker (1) and Dr. Russell Messing
(1) Hawai'i Diversified Technologies, lnc., HCR1 Box 4115, Kea'au, HI 96749 and (2) University of Hawai'i, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Department of Entomology, 7370 A Kuamo'o Road, Kapa'a, HI 96746
HITAR Brief No. 114
The purpose of this paper is to provide identification and pre-harvest information to farmers, gardeners, and extension agents about four distinct species of pest fruit flies (oriental, melon, Mediterranean, and solanaceous).
Introduction to Managing Fruit Flies in Hawaii points out simple but essential management tools that each grower should consider whenever planting crops that are hosts to fruit flies in Hawai'i. However, it does not provide a single, "one-answer" solution to the fruit fly problem, nor does it cover postharvest treatments for export.
Fruit fly pests in Hawaii are members of the Family Tephritidae in the Order Diptera. They came from as far away as Africa, as long ago as 1895, and feed on hundreds of host plants. Many of these plants are shared by more than one fly. The flies are widespread from sea level to mountainous areas (over 7,000 ft.). The melon fly is commonly found in low areas in commercial and backyard vegetable gardens. The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) moved away from most of the lowlands when the oriental fruit fly arrived in 1945. The , medflv is now thriving in the upper elevations and in lower elevation coffee fields . The oriental fruit fly is found in most climates. The solanaceous fruit fly survives in both cool and hot climates and, as of this printing, has only been found in Hawai'i in areas with an average of less than 100 inches of rain per year.
Plant Injury: Fruit fly adults most often lay their eggs in the fresh flesh of fruits and vegetables. Fruit is a term that refers to the fertilized embryo of fruit and vegetable flowers. The eggs hatch into larvae (maggots) which most often feed on the inside of the fruit, resulting in a soft, mushy mess. Look for wiggling white larvae the next time you pick a very ripe guava or other fruit.
Economic Injury: Fruit flies can often be present at low levels without causing significant economic problems, so control may not be necessary. If high fly populations are causing severe fruit damage, management practices may need to be implemented.
STEPS, TO MANAGING FRUIT FLIES
1. Prevention. Practice sanitation techniques (see Minimizing Risks
from Fruit Fly Damage for Details).
2. Monitor your local pests; determine if you have economic injury;
evaluate and use your best strategies.
3. Identify the pest fruit fly and familiarize yourself with its life cycle and
hosts (see Life Cycles and Rearing for Identification).
4. Determine which other plants in your area are fruit fly hosts, and
determine when these plants are fruiting.
5. If possible, rotate your crops to fruit at times other than peak host
(and peak pest) population times.
6. Harvest under-ripe fruits when possible (e.g., papayas are usually
fruit-fly-free if picked less than l/4 ripe)
7. If fruit flies exceed economic injury, reduce your pest populations or
apply controls (see Minimizing Risks from Fruit Fly Damage and
8. Divert pests with poisoned border plants, baits or lures.
9. Monitor your pests again and re-evaluate your strategies.
Fruit fly development (life cycle) is dependent on temperature. Cool temperatures will slow the development cycle. Warmer temperatures will speed up development. Information below is listed for growth at 77° F at 50% relative humidity, except for B. Iatifrons (80° F at 60% RH). Note also that data have been generated from laboratory flies; wild flies will most likely be different.
Traits Common to All Four Species
1. Eggs white, up to 1/16 of an inch long.
2. Larvae range in length from 1/16-3/8 of an inch. Just before
pupating, the larvae often pop and flip to leave the fruit.
3. Pupation normally occurs 1-2 inches under the soil.
4. Adults usually rest in shady locations unless feeding, mating or
laying eggs. Most feed at dawn and mate at dusk.
5. Wing pattern is easiest and most distinguishing characteristic; color
is inconsistent and, therefore, unreliable.
Scientific name: Bactrocera cucurbitae.
Native to: Malayan region. Detected in Hawai'i around 1907.
Key characteristics: Wing pattern has tiger-like stripes and large black spot at the wing tip. Abdomen usually brown with gold to brown horizontal band and faint black "T". Ovipositor (egg-laying tube) has plump, straight sheath (the outer covering of the ovipositor) and is about 1/16 inch long.
Distribution: Africa, Burma, Ceylon, China, Guam, Hawai'i, New Guinea, Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Sea level to 4500 feet.
Hosts: Over 100 known hosts. Preferred hosts are Cucurbitaceae (squash and melon etc.). Other hosts include Solanaceae (tomato, eggplant, pepper, etc.) and Caricaceae (papaya).
Life cycle: One generation takes around 37 days. Egg to adult in 15-18 days. Eggs hatch in about 30 hrs. Larvae develop in 7-8 days. Adults emerge in 9-10 days. Pre-oviposition period is 7-8 days. Females lay an average of 15 eggs /day, singly or in clusters.
Special notes: Known to feed on stem shoots and buds of squashes and melons.
Mediterranean Fruit Fly
Scientific name: Ceratitis capitata
Native to: Africa. First reported in Hawai'i in 1895.
Key characteristics: Wing pattern is very complex and multi-colored (gold and black) with black tiger-like stripes and detailed markings. Black spots on back or thorax. Abdomen usually brown. Adult is about 2/3 the size of the other fruit flies.
Distribution: Mediterranean countries, South Pacific, Hawai'i, Australia, Central, and South America. Dominant pest in Hawaii over 3000 ft. and in low-elevation coffee; prefers dry regions.
Hosts: Over 300 hosts. Preferred hosts include Rubiaceae (coffee), Rosaceae (peach, plum, and loquat), Rutaceae (orange), Myrtaceae (guava and rose apple), Solanaceae (pepper, Jerusalem cherry), and Sapotaceae, among others.
Life cycle: One generation takes around 18-31 days. Egg to adult in 19 days. Eggs hatch in about 2-3 days. Larvae develop in 7-8 days. Adults emerge in 9-10 days. Pre-oviposition period is about 3 days. Females lay an average of 10 eggs/day, singly, or in clusters up to 10.
Oriental Fruit Fly
Scientific name: Bactrocera dorsalis.
Native to: Asia. Introduced to Hawai'i in 1945.
Key characteristics: Wing pattern has 2 solid black lines stemming from the point of attachment, without a black spot at the tip as in B. latifrons. Abdomen gold to brown with gold to brown horizontal band and prominent black "T". Ovipositor has slender, straight sheath.
Distribution: Asia, Africa, Australia, and islands of the Pacific. The major pest in Hawai'i at low elevations, except for coffee fields.
Hosts: Over 200 wild and cultivated hosts. Preferred hosts include guava, mango, papaya, starfruit, passion fruit, citrus, fig, rose apple, tomato, and many more.
Life cycle: One generation takes around 37 days. Egg to adult in 19 days. Eggs hatch in about 38 hrs. Larvae develop in 7-8 days. Adults emerge in 10-11 days. Pre-oviposition period is 6-7 days. Females lay over 130 eggs /day, usually in groups of 10, but can be as many as 100 or more.
Solanaceous Fruit Fly
Scientific name: Bactrocera latifrons, also known as Malaysian fruit fly.
Native to: South and Southeast Asia. First detected in Hawaii in 1983.
Key characteristics: Wing pattern has 2 solid black lines stemming from the point of attachment plus a black spot at the wing tip that easily differentiates it from B. dorsalis. Abdomen usually brown, no "T". Ovipositor tri-lobed, as long as 1/16 inch.
Distribution: China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Thailand, Laos, India, Pakistan, and Hawai'i.
Hosts: 33 reported hosts, mostly Solanaceae (pepper, tomato, eggplant, apple of sodom) and Cucurbitaceae (on an incidental basis).
Life cycle: One generation takes around 48 days. Egg to adult in 21 days. Eggs hatch in about 2 days. Larvae develop in 8-9 days. Adults emerge in 10 days. Pre-oviposition period is 10-11 days. Females lay an average of 10 eggs /day, one at a time.
Special notes: Generally low-level populations, patchy distribution.
Healthy plants, soils, and ecosystems are the foundation of plant defenses. Plan your cropping system to maximize populations of beneficial organisms and minimize potential pests.
Research on pests (other than fruit flies) has shown that plant stress is usually followed by pest damage. Stress can be caused by extreme changes in soil moisture, temperature, pH or fertilizer. More information on these effects in Hawai'i is needed.
There are several ways to prevent fruit fly damage by exclosure
(keeping the fruits out of reach of the females). A screen house is a good way to produce fruit-fly-free crops. Local research has found that an economical structure ($1.20/sq. ft.) was cost effective within the first harvest for tomato production. Netting (floating row covers or lightweight netting from the fabric store) can be placed directly over plants like zucchini or over PVC tubes for temporary cover. Tomatoes and self-pollinating cucumbers are pollinated by the wind. Some other crops may need hand pollination if plants are covered by screen. A possibility that has not been fully explored is to add bee hives to large screenhouses to provide ample pollination. Note: secondary insect or weed problems may arise from reduced air circulation and lack of beneficial insect populations in exclosure areas.
Another method of exclosure is bagging individual fruits with paper bags or other barriers. Wooden clothespins work well to keep the bag closed. This method works very well, but it is labor-intensive.
Minimizing Risks From Fruit Fly Damage
Practice sanitation: Remove fruits as they ripen. If they fall to the ground, be sure to kill any larvae in the fruits. Bury deep or put in air- tight container for four days,or until no movement is found. Check for pupae (and destroy) before adding to compost pile. Note that burying fruit can also kill parasites. Sanitation by itself will not be effective in many situations; fruit flies can still fly in from outside areas.
Regarding burial: Melon fly pupae buried as deep as 2 feet have managed to emerge as adults from dry sand, wet sand, and soil. If burying infested fruit, soil must be tamped thoroughly. If mixed with compost, the pile must achieve internal temperatures of at least 120° F.
Mowing or shredding ground fruit can provide sanitation by killing the larvae or exposing them to other predators.
Harvest at early ripening stage: By harvesting early, you can sometimes prevent infestation (e.g. fruit flies do not usually sting papayas or 'Sharwil' avocados that are less than l/4 ripe). However, some fruits lose flavor when harvested too early, as they will not fully ripen.
Reduce populations: If fruit flies are present in your field prior to your crop ripening, reduce their population by baiting the adults to a poisoned area. This can be done by spraying a protein bait/insecticide mixture onto nearby plants or wind-breaks, or onto a planted corn crop border (flies gather on the silks). Farmers and researchers have observed reduction of melon flies in zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon fields using bait sprays on border crops. Suppression sprays have also been used in Australia, Israel, Mexico, Florida, and California. Mass trapping with protein baits (for males and females) or with lures (for males) is being researched for potential fruit fly reduction.
Create an "isolated" area: Planting between other crops or rotating to opposite ends of a field has been tried for a few crops (melon fly hosts). Often, fruit flies do not find the crop during the first half of the harvest. Note: this should not be repeated in consecutive plantings in the same place.
About plant resistance: High amounts of citrus oil in immature citrus peels are toxic to larval growth. Giberellic acid is being studied to delay peel-ripening on oranges and reduce susceptibility to fruit flies. Mango cultivars are being developed to keep fruits hard and crisp, even when ripe. Contrary to popular belief, small tomatoes (Roma and cherry) can be infested by fruit flies; however, many growers have found that small varieties can be harvested with less infestation than larger varieties.
Integrated Pest Management
1. Monitor pests.
2. Remove ripe fruits from area (sanitation).
3. Harvest early.
4. Control with bait and insecticide sprays.
5. Enhance or conserve beneficial wasps.
Don't be confused: Note that the fresh-fruit eating fruit flies discussed here (Tephritidae Family) are not the same as the tiny "fruit flies" that feed on yeasts of decaying fruit. These tiny flies are called vinegar flies (Drosophilidae Family) and can often be found on soggy fruits on the ground or overripe (fermenting) fruits. Control: Use vinegar and yeast attractant. Mix 11.2 oz. (dry) sugar (11/3 packed cups of raw sugar), 1 3/4 oz. (fluid) vinegar, I packet yeast, and 1 gallon water. Then add 1 drop soap. Mix again. Solution is ready to trap these tiny nuisances (see page 6 for more information on protein traps).
Cultural and Chemical Controls
Bait spray: In fruit fly infested areas, a protein hydrolysate compound, such as Nu-lure or Staley's fly bait, can be combined with insecticide and applied to plants that are associated with the resting and feeding areas of the adults rather than on the crop to be protected. Bait sprays use small amounts of chemical and are not attractive to parasites. To apply with a knapsack sprayer, find a malathion wettable powder (25% WP) product cleared for use on the target site. Following the directions for fruit fly control on the pesticide label, mix the appropriate amount of malathion 25% WP with 1 quart Nu-lure and 3 gal. water. Or mix 1 part malathion (57% EC) with 3 parts Nu-lure. For conventional power sprayers of 20-100 gallons, mix 1 quart Nu-lure with the appropriate amount of malathion. Agitate during application. Spray with concentrated coarse droplets on border plants that are listed on the pesticide label. Apply weekly (high populations) to bi-weekly (low populations). Small gardens may have a higher amount of immigrant flies and may need to be sprayed more often. Reapply after rain. Researchers and farmers have observed good control of melon flies with this technique. The Hawai'i Department of Agriculture's Pesticides Branch has allowed application of pesticide bait sprays to other border plants and windbreaks under certain conditions. You should contact your Pesticides Branch District Office for more information. Please note that this policy may change. Note also that the above mixture has a pH of 4.7; recent research indicates that a pH of 9.2 is more attractive to the flies, so researchers are looking at ways to raise the pH.
Spot treatment: Workers in Mexico have applied bait spray to orchard tree trunks with good results. Israeli producers also have found spot treatments of mix effective for medflies in or around the fields (2 oz. per spot, spaced at 40-80 spots per acre, 16-33 feet between spots). Insecticide sprays: Chemicals should be used only as a last resort and only on approved crops. At least 40 chemicals have been found to be toxic to fruit flies, including malathion and naled. Pyrethrum is not as toxic to fruit flies as malathion, and permethrin is more toxic to parasites than fruit flies. In fact, most pesticides are more toxic to parasites and other beneficials than fruit flies.
NOTE ON USING CHEMICALS: Read the pesticide label completely and apply according to manufacturer's recommendations with chemicals registered for your crop. If in doubt, contact your local CES office.
Approved Organic Controls
Neem: In research tests, neem-treated sand was found to be toxic to oriental and medflies but not to several parasites. This may provide a good potential for soil treatment to reduce fly development in the field; however, adult flies may still invade from outside areas. Azatin is a registered neem product in Hawai'i that can be used as a soil treatment against larvae. Follow the directions on the label. Note: the National Organic Standards Board has approved use of neem in certified fields; however, the inert ingredients in Azatin are being investigated.
Fowl: Chickens and guinea hens are good at controlling larvae found at the top of the soil . Wild birds have also been seen digging through infested ground fruits for larvae. The fowl might also help with sanitation of the fruits.
Other Predators: Ants are known to feed on most life stages of fruit flies (research reports up to 40% kill), while earwigs have been reported to feed on fruit fly larvae and other insects.
Nematodes: Some soil-borne organisms feed on pests in the soil. Nematodes are microscopic round worms that have a broad host range, including fruit fly larvae. Currently, commercial use of Steinernema carpocapsae is not permitted in Hawai'i. These nematodes may be a viable control in the future for areas heavily infested with fruit flies.
Parasites: Fruit fly parasites are tiny wasps that attack only fruit flies. Parasites can lay their eggs in the egg, larva or pupa of a developing fruit fly. The parasite develops within the immature stages until the fruit fly pupa is consumed and the adult parasite emerges from the soil. To recover parasites from infested fruits, rear out the same as fruit flies (see info on Rearing). Parasites are more effective in controlling fruit flies than people realize (e.g., reports have indicated up to 90% kill on oriental fruit flies in unsprayed guava).
Plants generally known to attract beneficial wasps include yarrow, white sweetclover, tansy, sweet fennel, sweet alyssum, spearmint, cowpea, knotweed, and caraway, among others. These floral nectar sources or household honey might enhance parasite populations. There are 6 primary and 3 minor Tephritid fruit fly parasite species established in the state of Hawai'i that were introduced for biological control. Many additional parasites exist in Africa, Asia, and South America. CTAHR is researching the possibility of bringing in more parasites for biocontrol in Hawai'i, with precautions being taken not to impact native ecosystems. Do not attempt to bring in parasites; there are stringent import regulations to protect Hawai'i from alien species.
Rearing for Identification - (Get to Know Your Pests)
Raising larvae to adulthood is the best way to identify the fruit fly attacking your crops. An easy home method uses a wide-mouth plastic container with lid. Make some air holes in the top. Place a small amount of infested fruit with wriggling larvae inside the clean container. Observe regularly, making sure there is no liquid collecting on the bottom. Soil or sand can be added to prevent drowning. As the larvae age, they will leave the fruit to pupate. You can remove the fruit after the pupae are formed. The adults will emerge after 9-11 days. Compare them with the pictures and descriptions in this paper.
You can rear out beneficial wasps (parasites) in the same way. Because they are smaller, be sure that the holes in the top are smaller than 1/16 of an inch, or put a tissue or small-mesh screen between the top and bottom of the cup. Adults emerge in 2-10 days from ripe fruit.
Monitoring with Traps
Monitoring is important to identify pests and to keep track of changes in population levels of fruit fly pests in order to indicate when or whether to implement controls. However, fruit infestation is the best indicator for presence of pests or evaluation of pest controls.
Liquid traps with food bait: Liquid traps with food bait mixes attract males and females. Put 1-2 inches of mix into the trap. Check weekly. Yeast tablets: Mix five Torula Yeast Tablets in 2-21/2 cups water. Stir to dissolve tablets. Protein hydrolysate: Mix 11 fluid oz. Nu-lure or Staley's bait, 7 fluid oz. of borax, and 31/2 qts. water. Cucumber: Blend cucumber or other primary host with water. Place small amount in trap. Change often.
Parapheromone lure traps: Parapheromone lure traps use highly volatile lures which attract many male flies; these traps will need to be checked frequently. Amount of lure will determine how volatile and long-lasting these traps will be. Note: lures catch only males, leaving the females to remain in the field to infest the fruit. Presently, only methyl eugenol for oriental fruit fly is available locally.
To catch male fruit flies, use 3-5 drops of lure in a trap initially. Addition of an insecticide to the lure provides better catch than traps
without insecticide. Use I drop of insecticide approved for use on your crop for every 20 drops of lure used. Replenish lure as needed, using more lure to catch males over longer distances and over longer time periods. No insecticides may be used for pest control unless they are EPA-registered and labeled for use on that crop at that intended site. The Hawaii Department of Agriculture Pesticides Branch has agreed that parapheromone lures with insecticide may also be used in fields with non-approved crops to collect fruit flies for survey purposes only in properly labeled traps. Please note that this policy may change.
Yellow sticky panels are also used to monitor in-field flies. Check regularly; change when trapping surface is full or becomes dusty.
High-density trapping is being explored to reduce or suppress populations of fruit flies. USDA researchers have not produced evidence that small-scale trapping helps reduce infestation. However, mass trapping is used in other areas. Mass trapping in Crete resulted in substantial reduction of insecticides used against a similar fruit fly. A local fruit grower reported fruit fly-free harvests of mango when applying 3 drops of methyl eugenol lure to sticky fly tapes, which were placed 12-45 feet from host plants. Tapes were in the open, between plants. Local research is needed to determine if small-scale suppression of fruit flies can be effective.
TYPES OF ATTRACTANTS
Food baits are effective, mild attractants for males and females of all four species. They are not very volatile, so bait traps typically have lower catches than the parapheromone lure traps, but they can be used directly in the field. Torula Yeast tablets are more effective than Nu-lure over time, as the pH is stable at 9.2. The level of pH in the mix plays an important role in attracting fruit flies. Fewer fruit flies are attracted to the mix as the pH becomes more acidic. USDA researchers are working on a combination of dyes commonly used in cosmetics and drugs with Torula to attain substantial population reductions in medfly and oriental trials. Nu-lure (yeast extract) and Staley's Fly Bait (corn extract) are hydrolyzed proteins. They are not effective over time as the pH drops from its initial state of 8.5. Promar (experimental hydrolyzed protein) developed by Australians has been very effective in Malaysia against a species similar to the oriental fly. Starfruit orchards with Promar spray applications rather than insecticidal cover sprays have doubled yields (mostly due to more bees being available for pollination). Other food baits: Reports from farmers indicate that homemade mixes (cucumber or zucchini with water) or vinegar and yeast have attracted both males and females of the melon fly.
Parapheromone lures attract only the males, and each fruit fly species in Hawaii is attracted to a different lure. Most are very volatile and longer-lasting than protein baits. The amount of lure necessary is determined by the purpose of the trapping (i.e., monitoring versus mass trapping). A few drops may be effective but not long-lasting. To understand the strength of the lures, note that detection traps in California with trimedlure and methyl eugenol are used at the rate of 10 per square mile and 2 per square mile, respectively (6 ml. dosage each). Reports in Hawai'i have indicated that 3-5 drops of methyl eugenol have been used on traps within a field. Currently, only methyl eugenol for oriental fruit fly is available in local garden shops.
Parapheromone Lures for Male Fruit Flies
Type of lure Strength Fly attracted
Methyl eugenol very volatile & persistent Oriental
Cue-lure moderately persistent Melon
Ceralure persistent Medfly
Trimedlure moderately persistent Medfly
Latilure mildly persistent Solanaceous
Color, Shape or Size
Yellow is the most attractive color to males and females of oriental fruit fly, melon fly, and medfly. They are attracted to yellow and white flat panels as well as spheres. In field tests, researchers collected as many or more females than males on the colored traps.
TYPES OF TRAPS
USDA-ARS is currently working on a comprehensive review of all traps
used in the market and in research.
Protein bait: Glass or plastic McPhail traps can be used. Flies enter from below and cannot get out.
Lure: A popular lure trap is a waxed cardboard Jackson trap, or tent trap, that has a sticky insert floor to catch flies and a cotton wick for lures.
Yellow sticky board: Rectangular yellow boards covered with
stick'em are used with or without other attractants.
Double yellow Panels: Two panels sandwiching a wick-soaked lure (without insecticide) are being tested with medflies and ceralure. This has been found to be very long-lasting and effective.
Homemade Protein bait: Use a clear plastic bottle and make several 1 inch holes around the sides. Add liquid bait mix.
Lure: Use a clear plastic bottle and make a few 1/4 inch holes around the sides. Put cotton inside for lures.
Harris trap: Harris trap can be used for any attractant. Use a tall container with a clear wide cover. Make 1" dia. holes. Easier to use than traps with stick'em, but when used with lures, must have insecticide to kill the flies so flies don't escape.
Sticky panels: Paint cardboard or wood panel bright yellow. Cover with Tanglefoot.
All traps used for catching fruit flies must be properly labeled. Include bait or lure and date trap was set. Keep out of reach of children.
PLACEMENT OF TRAPS
Placement of monitoring traps may be more critical for medflies than the other flies . Some research has shown that trap response for medflies is greater in mating areas. Medfly mating takes place in the crown of the tree with some light, on the upwind side. Traps for the other flies should be placed in resting or feeding areas.
Protein traps and other mild attractants should be placed close to host plants, in a shady area. Place lure traps at borders, comers, and outside areas of the field, before flies move into your field. Color attractants should be placed in the open for effectiveness.
Trap density or spacing is based on amount and type of attractant used. Monitoring traps do not need to cover the entire area. Protein bait traps have been used at 15-30 feet spacing in-field and lure traps have been spaced at 100 feet outside the field.
Visual range for fruit flies is about 15-20 feet. Yellow traps should be placed within that distance from the host plants at greater densities than the lure traps.
Mainland programs recommend monitoring traps to be 4-6 feet from ground level. More information on specific densities and placement of monitoring traps under Hawai'i conditions is needed.
Bait: An attractant and food source (sometimes mixed with insecticide) for treating fruit fly infested areas.
Beneficial organisms: Birds, parasites, nematodes or other organisms that aid in controlling pests.
Development: Growth through life stages or life cycle. Fruit flies have 4 life stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults.
Generation: The period of time it takes to complete all stages of development, including pre-oviposition period.
Host: A plant or animal that provides food for larval growth and development.
Infestation: Presence of a fruit fly in a host.
Integrated pest management: Control strategy that integrates cultural, biological, and chemical techniques to manage pests.
Larva: Maggot. Juvenile stage of fly development.
Nu-lure: Commercial formulation of corn protein that acts as a broad-spectrum food attractant for male and female fruit flies.
Ovipositor: Egg-laying tube.
Parapheromone lure: Mild to very strong attractants that attract only male fruit flies. Many are produced by plants.
Persistent: Relates to how long-lasting a lure is.
Pre-oviposition period: Time period after adults emerge, before egg- Iaying begins.
Protein hydrolysate: Extracts of yeasts or grains that act as a broad- spectrum food attractant for male and female fruit flies (and many other protein-feeding insects).
Pupa: Transformation stage of fly development, after larva and before and adult. Hard, brittle case covers the pupa. Plural form is pupae; pupation refers to the act of transformation.
Sheath: Outer covering of ovipositor.
Staley's fly bait No. 7: Commercial formulation of corn protein that acts as a broad-spectrum food attractant to male and female fruit flies.
Thorax: Back or top of the mid-body.
Torula yeast tablets: Commercial formulation of yeast protein that acts as a broad-spectrum food attractant for male and female fruit flies. Volatile: Readily vaporized [lures]. Can carry on the wind.
A complete list of references is available upon request.
Liquido,N. 1993. Reduction of oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in papaya orchards by field sanitation. J. Agric. Entomol.10(2): 163-170.
Liquido, N., E. Harris and L. Dekker. 1994. Ecology of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations: host plants, natural enemies, distnbution, and abundance. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 87 (1): 071-084.
Mau, R. F. L. 1983. Watermelon insecticide guide for commercial producers. Univ. of Hawai'i, HITAHR Brief No. 044.
Robinson, A. S., and G. Hooper, ed. 1989. World crop pests: Fruit flies- their biology, natural enemies and control. Vol.3A and 3B.
Steiner, L., W. C. Mitchell and K. Ohinata. 1959. USDA recommends poisoned-bait sprays for fruit flies. Hawaii Agriculture. March: 25-30.
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Emergency programs manuals. (Mediterranean fruit fly action plan. 1982. Melon fly action plan. 1984. Oriental fruit fly action plan. l989. Malaysian fruit fly action plan. 1993).
Trap Sources: Great Lakes IPM, 10220 Church Rd., NE, Vestaburg, MI 48891; and Pest Management Supply Inc., 311 River Dnve, MA 01035.
We are grateful to the following for information and assistance with the Brief: Deborah Ward, Terry Sekioka, Vince lones and Ken Kaneshiro of UH Manoa; RobertBoesch, Lance Kobashigawa and Pat Conant of HDOA; Norman Makio; Tane Datta; Michael Rassa; Joe Rosenova; Bart Jones; Kert Hamamoto; Jack Banks; and Jim Frazier. We are extremely grateful for the support from LISA for Hawai'i Project; Hawaii County Research & Development Department; Hawaiti Fruit Fly Committee; and Big Island Resource, Conservation and Development Council.
Reference to a company or product name does not imply approval or recommendation of the product by the College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai'i, United States Department of Agriculture, or Hawai'i Diversified Technologies, Inc. and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may be suitable. All materials should be used in accordance with label instructions or manufacturers' directions.