TOMATO

Authors

John J. McHugh, Jr. and Ronald F. L. Mau

Department of Entomology

Honolulu, Hawaii

 

Table 1. Disease Control Recommendations.

Disease

Control Measure(s)

Comments

Anthracnose 3 to 4 year crop rotation.

Chlorothalonil (Bravo, Terranil) at 1.5 to 2 pt. per acre (F flowable products) or 1.5 to 2.5 lb. per acre for dry formulations (DF, DG) OR mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb or Manex II) at 2 to 3 pt. per acre for flowables or 1 to 2 lb. per acre for dry products (WP, DF, DG).

Tank mixed copper (at labeled rates) with the above mentioned fungicides can enhance effectiveness of control. Follow labeled rates when using copper hydroxide or copper sulfate materials to avoid phytotoxicity.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Avoid fields with history of anthracnose.

0 day PHI for chlorothalonil; 5 day PHI for mancozeb.

Note: chlorothalonil can scar mature fruit.

Bacterial canker Use disease free seed. Copper is ineffective for controlling bacterial canker. Rotate out of fields with history of bacterial canker. Do not plant tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, or peppers for at least 3 years. Contaminated trays and benches should be sanitized with a 10% chlorine bleach solution.
Bacterial speck, bacterial spot Apply 2 copper sprays at 7 to 10 day intervals before the appearance of the disease. Follow labeled rates when using copper hydroxide or copper sulfate materials to avoid phytotoxicity. Conditions which favor bacterial speck are cool wet weather while bacterial spot is promoted by warm humid or damp weather. 0 day PHI for copper sprays.
Blossom end rot Gypsum as a soil additive at 400 lb. per acre pre-plant plus weekly foliar applications of calcium based fertilizer at labeled rates at first flower. Physiological disorder related to calcium deficiency. Also can be promoted by irregular irrigation practices or excessive nitrogen fertilizer.
Buckeye rot Metalaxyl (Ridomil Gold EC) at 0.25 to 1 pt. per acre Apply as soil surface application under vines at first flower. Especially important for determinate (bush) varieties. 28 day PHI.
Damping off (Pythium) Metalaxyl (Ridomil Gold) at 1/4 to 1 pt. per acre as a preplant broadcast or banded spray in 50 gal. water before or at time of seeding.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

For field seeded crops only. This problem can be avoided by using transplants grown in clean media and properly hardened before planting. Avoid overwatering.
Early blight, Septoria leaf spot 3-4 year crop rotation with unsusceptible crops.

Chlorothalonil (Bravo, Terranil) at 1.5 to 2 pt. per acre (F flowable products) or 1.5 to 2.5 lb. per acre for dry formulations (DF, DG) OR mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb or Manex II) at 2 to 3 pt. per acre for flowables or 1 to 2 lb. per acre for dry products (WP, DF, DG). Begin spraying 2 to 4 weeks after transplant at 7-14 day intervals.

Tank mixed copper (at labeled rates) with the above mentioned fungicides can enhance effectiveness of control. Follow labeled rates when using copper hydroxide or copper sulfate materials to avoid phytotoxicity.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Rotate out of fields with history of early blight or Septoria leaf spot.

0 day PHI for chlorothalonil; 5 day PHI for mancozeb.

Note: chlorothalonil can scar mature fruit.

Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt Resistant varieties Check with seed breeders and suppliers.
Late blight Metalaxyl and chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo) at 2 lb. per acre at 14 day spray interval OR mancozeb and metalaxyl (Ridomil Gold MZ) at 2.5 lb. per acre OR chlorothalonil (Bravo, Terranil) at 1.5 to 2 pt. per acre (F flowable products) or 1.5 to 2.5 lb. per acre for dry formulations (DF, DG) OR mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb or Manex II) at 2 to 3 pt. per acre for flowables or 1 to 2 lb. per acre for dry products (WP, DF, DG).

Tank mixed copper (at labeled rates) with the above mentioned fungicides can enhance effectiveness of control. Follow labeled rates when using copper hydroxide or copper sulfate materials to avoid phytotoxicity.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Late blight favored by cool moist conditions. Begin spraying when conditions are favorable.

14 day PHI for Ridomil Gold/Bravo; 5 day PHI for Ridomil MZ; 0 day PHI for chlorothalonil; 5 day PHI for mancozeb.

Note: chlorothalonil can scar mature fruit.

Leaf mold Chlorothalonil (Bravo, Terranil) at 1.5 to 2 pt. per acre (F flowable products) or 1.5 to 2.5 lb. per acre for dry formulations (DF, DG) OR mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb or Manex II) at 2 to 3 pt. per acre for flowables or 1 to 2 lb. per acre for dry products (WP, DF, DG).

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Leaf mold occurs under warm wet weather.

0 day PHI for chlorothalonil; 5 day PHI for mancozeb.

Note: chlorothalonil can scar mature fruit.

Nematodes (root-knot and reniform) Pre-plant injection with metam sodium (Vapam 42%) at 30 to 60 gal. per acre. Check with manufacturer for recommended injection methods.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Use at highest rate in fields where nematodes are known to be a problem. Do not transplant before 21 days after treatment.
Tobacco mosaic virus Avoid contact with tobacco products when seeding and transplanting. Cigarette stains on field workers fingers and hands can serve as source of tobacco mosaic innoculum.
Tomato spotted wilt virus Vectored by Western Flower Thrips - no effective control measures. Tomato spotted wilt virus can become very serious where susceptible crops are grown without interruption.

Table 2. Insect and Mite Control Recommendations.

Insects/Mites

Control Measure(s)

Comments

Aphids (various species) Conserve natural enemies.

Imidacloprid (Provado 1.6F) at 3.75 fl.oz. per acre OR methomyl (Lannate) at 1.5 to 3 pt. per acre for liquid (LV) or 0.5 to1 lb. per acre for dry formulation (90 WSP).

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

By limiting chemical insecticide use predators and parasites can help control aphid populations.

For Provado, do not exceed 18.75 fl. oz. per acre per crop cycle, 0 day PHI; 1 day PHI for methomyl.

Cutworms Field sanitation.

Carbaryl (Sevin bait, 5%) at 30 to 40 lb. per acre.

Treatment threshold = 1 cutworm per 100 plants.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Keep fields clean of all crop residue.

Apply Sevin bait as a broadcast application to ground, do not reapply within 3 days. 0 day PHI.

Fruit flies (melon fly and oriental fruit fly) Sanitation.

Trap cropping and baiting with 1% Nu-lure + 1% Malathion weekly.

Destroy all crop residue, bury cull piles.

Plant trap crops as windbreak rows (e.g. sterile sudax grass) spaced 45 ft. apart.

Do not spray crop for fruit flies.

Leafminers (vegetable and chrysanthemum leafminers) Conserve natural enemies.

Abamectin (Agrimek 0.15EC) at 8 to 16 oz. per acre OR cyromazine (Trigard WSP) at 0.165 lb. per acre.

Treatment threshold = 6 mines with live leafminer worms per leaflet.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Biological control can be very effective; minimize use of organophosphate, carbamate (e.g. Lannate), and pyrethroid insecticides (e.g. Asana).

Abamectin and cyromazine minimally impact natural enemies.

7 day PHI for Agrimek; 7 day PHI for Trigard.

Mites (broad mite, carmine spider mite, vegetable mite, tomato russet mite) Sulfur at labeled rates.

Dicofol (Kelthane MF) at 0.75 to 1.5 pt. per acre.

Abamectin (Agrimek 0.15EC) at 8 to 16 oz. per acre.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Under leaf coverage is important for optimum mite control. 1 to 2 spray applications should control mites effectively.

0 day PHI for sulfur; 2 days PHI for dicofol; 7 days PHI for Agrimek.

Note: sulfur can be phytotoxic to young tomato plants and tomato fruit.

Onion thrips, western flower thrips Spinosad (Success) at 4 to 8 fl oz. per acre.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Do not apply more than 29 fl. oz. per acre per season. To manage resistance do not apply more than 3 times in a 21 day period.

PHI = 1 day.

Tomato fruitworm (corn earworm) Lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior 1 EC) at 3.84 fl. oz. per acre. Not for use on cherry tomatoes.

Esfenvalerate (Asana XL) at 9.6 fl. oz. per acre.

Treatment threshold = 1 tomato fruitworm moth per scouted field with fruit or, 7 moths per pheromone trap per week with fruit present.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

5 day PHI for lamda-cyhalothrin; 1 day PHI for esfenvalerate.
Tomato pinworm Checkmate TPW mating disruption pheromone clips (or other similar products) @ 200 - 350 dispensers per acre.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Attach clips to the base of the stem of the top most fully developed leaf when fruit are marble sized. One clip every 25 to 30 linear feet.
Whiteflies (greenhouse whitefly, silverleaf whitefly, sweetpotato whitefly) Imidacloprid (Admire 2F) at 16 to 24 fl. oz. per acre.

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

Soil apply imidacloprid through drip irrigation system over a 2 hour period. Best timing for application is at first flower. Do not apply more than 32 fl. oz. of Admire per acre per year. Check label for plant back restrictions. 21 day PHI.

Admire 2F applied for whitefly control will also give control of aphids.

Table 3. Weed Control Recommendations.

Control Measure(s)

Rates

Comments

Metam sodium 42% (Vapam) Pre-plant injection at 30 gal. per acre. Check with manufacturer for recommended injection methods. Preplant/Preemergent/Soil fumigant.

Broad spectrum weed control.

Do not transplant before 21 days after treatment.

Metribuzin (Sencor 75DF or 4F, Lexone 75DF) 0.33 to 0.67 lb. per acre for DF, 0.5 to 1 pt. for 4F.

For transplants only.

Preplant/Preemergent.

Broadleaf weed control.

Incorporate to depth of 3 inches after application to avoid harming tomato transplants.

Napropamide (Devrinol 50DF or 2EC)

See Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System for Information on peppers

For low organic matter soils (<2% OM) use 2 lb. per acre DF or 2 qt. per acre EC, 4 lb. or 4 qt. per acre for other soils. Preplant incorporated.

Grass control + some broadleaf control.

Incorporate to depth of 2 to 3 inches after application to prevent deterioration.

Pebulate (Tillam 6EC) Low OM soils use 2.7 qt. per acre, high OM or dark soils use 4 qt. per acre. Preplant incorporated.

Grass control.

Incorporate to depth of 2 inches after application (mechanically or with irrigation)

Tank mix with napropamide gives excellent broad spectrum weed control.

Metribuzin (Sencor 75DF or 4F, Lexone 75DF) 0.67 to 1.33 lb. per acre for DF, 1 to 2 pt. per acre for 4F. Pre-transplant preemergent or post-plant postemergent.

Broadleaf weed control.

For post-plant postemergence spray after tomato plants have reached 6 true leaves stage. Do not use surfactant.

7 day PHI.

Paraquat (Gramoxone Extra 2.5E) 3 pt. per acre plus 0.125% nonionic surfactant.

Use shielded spray rig. Tomato plants must be 6 to 10 in. tall.

Post-plant/Postemergent/Directed spray.

Broad spectrum weed control.

30 day PHI.

Sethoxydim (Poast 1.5EC) 1 to 1.5 pt. per acre plus 0.125% nonionic surfactant. Post-plant/Postemergent/Broadcast spray.

Grass control.

20 day PHI.